Cross-Cultural Diversity and Personal Branding

cross cultural diversity

Cultural Values stem from research on the typical values and norms of different cultures. Learning about these different cultural values will help you understand whether an individual’s behavior reflects his/her cultural background or if it is more likely an expression of the individual’s personality. This helps you avoid stereotyping and prevents the dangerous assumption that everyone from a culture is the same.

These cultural values are relevant to different national cultures (e.g. Germany vs. Japan). But they also apply to a variety of other cultural contexts such as different ethnic groups, regions within the same country, or different organizations, political parties or generations.

Individualism – Collectivism

Individualism: Emphasis on individual goals and individual rights
Collectivism: Emphasis on group goals and personal relationships

Power Distance

Low Power Distance: Emphasis on equality; shared decision-making
High Power Distance: Emphasis on differences in status; superiors make decisions

Uncertainty Avoidance

Low Uncertainty Avoidance: Emphasis on flexibility and adaptability
High Uncertainty Avoidance: Emphasis on planning and predictability

Cooperative – Competitive

Cooperative: Emphasis on collaboration, nurturing, and family
Competitive: Emphasis on competition, assertiveness, and achievement

Time Orientation

Short Term Time Orientation: Emphasis on immediate outcomes (success now)
Long Term Time Orientation: Emphasis on long term planning (success later)


Low Context: Emphasis on explicit communication (words)
High Context: Emphasis on indirect communication (tone, context)

Being – Doing

Being: Emphasis on quality of life
Doing: Emphasis on being busy and meeting goals


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